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Wire bonding capillaries for electronic chips connecting

ICSI research contributed to the improvement of various stages of the fabrication technology:

Procedure for attrition milling
Freeze spray based granulation method
New materials for improved wear resistance: doped oxides, non oxides
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Microstructure of fully dense capillary

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Weibull analysis of strength.
1 – Standard material based capillaries
2 – Doped oxide based capillaries

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Freeze granulated RTP oxide powder

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Wear of standard product

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Wear of capillary based on newly developed doped oxide

Pure silica bulk glass fabrication below 1500°C

In-house prepared monosize, spherical silica powder.
Forming of ordered particles of thickness ≥10mm exhibiting narrow size distribution of nano porosity.
Ultrafast MW sintering, which prevents crystallization.
Application: Preform for drawing of high purity optical fibers.
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Ordered green body

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Silica glass discs

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XRD patterns of MW sintered specimens:
a – fused silica; b – monosize silica.
X = cristobalite

Q-switches based on polycrystalline transparent ceramic or glass ceramics

Ceramic host:
  transparent spinel.
Glass ceramic host:
  nano-gahnite (ZnO•Al2O3)


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El-Op + ICSI US Patent no. 7316986B2, 2008

Spectral characteristics

Material co2+ : TGC (n-Ga) co2+ : MG-Sp S.C.
σgsa [•10-19cm2] 3.4 4.5
σesu 0.37 0.46
FMWH [ns] 32 75
E [mJ] 4.0 ∼3.0
τes [ns] 350
Laser damage >16 W/cm2 (low no. of test pulses)
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switches

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Absorption spectra

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Co2+:Sp (ICSI)

Fabrication procedure for transparent polycrystalline MgAl2O4 spinel

HV5 = 13.8-14.2 GPa
E = 290±10 GPa
TRS = 200±50 MPa
Applications: Low areal density transparent armor.
IR sensor protecting cones for missiles
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Transmission spectra of spinel

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Submicron grains size of transparent
spinel sintered at ∼1300°C

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Transparent spinel ceramic parts

High performance piezoceramic materials

Synthesis procedures for piezoceramic powders have been developed.
Fabrication methods for various types of actuator were established.

Specialty ICSI piezoceramic materials

Material code Special features Applications
IP7 (Ba) acc. Relaxor + PZT Large εr combined with high Qm
εr = 2820; tanδ = 4 • 10-3; Qm = 410
High power directional phased-array ultrasound projectors (medical guns)
IP-AM-1 Intermediate range values of Qm (200 - 300) Allows the use of low cost driving electronics for long service life actuators
PLZT-7 High value of g31 • d31 = 2.22 • 10-9 VN-2
g31 =12 • 10-3 VmN-1 and kp ≈ 0.66
Igniters
PLZT-1 Optical VIS transmission ∼70%. t=2mm kp = 0.72; d33 = 710 • 10-12 m/V;
Rq = 38.6 • 106 m2 / V2
Electro - optic devices
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PLZT plate

Piezoelectric coefficient

e.g. La/Zr/Ti 7/60/40
kp = 0.72
d33 = 710 • 10-12 m/v
g33 = 22.8 Vm/N

Electrooptic coefficient

R (quadratic) = 38.6 • 106 m2/V2
R (linear) = 1.0 • 1010 m/V

Fast MW sintering of ceramics

Direct (without aid of susceptors) fast MW densification procedures – for different types of advanced ceramics – were established.

Material Characteristics Applications
B4C/SiC/Al
BD = 2.65 - 2.80 g/cm3
HV5 = 19 - 25 GP
KIC = 3.1 - 3.6 MPam½
Lightweight armor
WC/xCo
BD = 14.5 g/cm3
HV5 = 15.8 GPa
KIC = 14.3 MPam½
TRS = 3.1 - 3.45 GPa
η - Co3W3C = 0%
Free carbon = 0%
Cutting tools
TZP (5.17% Y2O3)
BD = 99.5% TD
TRS = 6.40 ± 40 MPa
HV1 = 14.5 GPa
KIC = 5.75 MPam½
Milling media
Al2O3/TiC
BD = 98.2% TD (after HIP)
HV = 12 GPa
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B4C/SiC/Al based hard ceramics (MW)

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Microstructure of B4C/SiC/Al